Insurance, at its best, helps protect against events that could send your finances into a death spiral. Crucial products include insurance against a serious car crash, the loss of or damage to a home, and the loss of income due to death or disability.
Other products? Many offer little value, or they’re filled with exclusions and caveats. Following are some potentially dumb insurance buys:
1. Identity theft insurance
Federal law limits your liability from credit card fraud, so even if a thief uses your credit card, you’re off the hook if you report theft promptly. Says the Federal Trade Commission:
Your liability for unauthorized use of your credit card is limited to $50. If you report the loss to the credit card company before your credit card is used, you are not responsible for any unauthorized use.
Most card companies go a step further and offer $0 fraud liability.
Report an ATM card missing within two business days after you realize it’s gone, and you are liable for no more than $50 in stolen money. Wait longer to report and you could be responsible for up to $500 in purchases. If you let 60 days go by after your bank sends a statement with unauthorized purchases, you could face unlimited liability, the FTC says.
In 2014, only 14 percent of identity theft victims paid $1 or more out-of-pocket, says a U.S. Department of Justice report. “Of these victims, about half suffered losses of less than $100,” it says.
Repairing your credit and damage to your identity, on the other hand, can be time-consuming and costly. The National Association of Insurance Commissioners says:
[I]dentity theft insurance provides coverage for the cost of reclaiming your financial identity, such as the costs of making phone calls, making copies, mailing documents, taking time off from work without pay (lost wages) and hiring an attorney.
Identity theft insurance may cover those costs. Or it may not. Policies vary. Questions to ask: Can you recover lost wages from time away from work? What will the company do to reclaim your identity for you? Read the exclusions, limits and deductibles to decide if a policy is worth it.
Alternative: Protect yourself before you’re hit. Monitor your bank and credit accounts regularly. Get three free annual credit reports. If you think your identity has been compromised, place a 90-day fraud alert on your credit file.
2. Credit life insurance
You may be offered credit life insurance when you obtain a car loan or a mortgage. It pays all or part of your loan balance if you die. The beneficiary is the lender, not your family.
Occasionally, it is built into the loan and can’t be declined. Most often, though, it is a separate and optional purchase. The Federal Trade Commission warns consumers to beware of lenders slipping it into a purchase without asking. That’s illegal.
The FTC advises borrowers to resist lenders’ sales pressure. You can’t be denied credit for declining optional credit insurance. If someone tries, report them to your state attorney general (find yours here) or state insurance commissioner (click your state on the map or select it from the drop-down menu).
You may encounter other types of credit insurance:
- Credit disability (or accident and health): It covers loan payments if you can’t work because you are sick, injured or disabled.
- Involuntary unemployment (or loss of income): It covers loan payments if you are out of work involuntarily — a layoff or termination, for instance.
- Credit property: It protects the property you used to secure the loan — your home, for example, in the case of a mortgage — against damage, loss in an accident, disaster or theft.
The value of these products depends on the price and your situation. Is your job insecure, for example? Is your health or mobility at risk? Also, does it really make all of your payments or only partial ones?
Alternative: Compare the price of term life insurance. “Regular term life insurance is usually much cheaper in the long run,” says Money Talks News founder Stacy Johnson. Also, you likely get disability insurance through your workplace.
3. Travel insurance
Travel insurance can be confusing. There’s protection against canceled trips, interrupted trips, medical expenses and many other risks. Policies vary in quality and in coverage. Some cover many eventualities; others insure against a single risk, like medical evacuation.
The New York Times recommends a one-stop site, InsureMyTrip, for policies, articles and detailed information about what products cover. Travel Insured International is another site for comparison shopping, Forbes says.
Expect travel insurance to cost about 4 percent to 10 percent of the cost of the trip, with a more-comprehensive plan costing more, says The Simple Dollar. It recommends six companies and cautions readers to look for exclusions and loopholes in policies.
Travel insurance is a waste of money when:
- Your policy is riddled with exclusions.
- You choose a policy that doesn’t cover the risks you are likely to encounter.
- You buy coverage for risks you aren’t likely to encounter.
- You only stand to lose the cost of the airline ticket cancellation fee.
When is it worthwhile? Travel insurance makes sense if you anticipate unusual risks, beyond the broad fear that “anything could happen.” Examples:
- The traveler, or a family member back home, is in precarious health or elderly and fragile.
- The trip involves a bigger-than-usual possibility of a major disruption — traveling in the tropics in hurricane season, for example, or visiting a country prone to political unrest.
- A hitch in child care arrangements could force you to cut short or cancel the trip.
- Airline connections are tight and missing one of them could set you up for significant costs.
- Prepaid trips where a big deposit is on the line.
- You’ll just sleep better knowing you’re covered and are happy to pay for peace of mind.
Medical and evacuation travel insurance
- Medical insurance covers your care abroad when your medical plan doesn’t. (Medicare, for one, does not cover Americans outside of the United States.) First, call your medical plan to find out what it does and doesn’t cover.
- Emergency evacuation coverage flies you home if medically necessary — a good idea if your trip entails risky activities (climbing or trekking, for instance) or if your health is fragile. But policies with lots of exceptions and exclusions may be a waste of money.
Alternatives: You may already be covered through your homeowners, life, auto or health insurance. Credit cards may offer some forms of travel insurance, like lost luggage, theft and life coverage.
4. Dental insurance
If you have dental insurance through work, you’re golden. Otherwise, a plan can run $50 a month or more for benefits that top out at as little as $1,000 a year. Don’t buy it thinking you’ll collect thousands of dollars’ worth of implants or other complex treatments. Your policy might just pay 50 percent for oral surgery and restorative care. It may not cover cosmetic dentistry at all.
The problem is the yearly cap on payouts. Dental plans haven’t raised these maximum payouts over the years, even though the premiums keep growing.
Affordable Care Act dental coverage: The Affordable Care Act requires some health plans to include affordable dental care for children. Some states allow insurers to offer family dental plans too. Healthcare.gov describes the ACA dental options.
- Discount dental plan: NerdWallet says discount plans charge “an enrollment fee of about $80 to $120 each year to get discounts ranging from 10 percent to 60 percent on all of your dental visits and procedures.”
- Charitable clinics: Free or low-cost care is offered at community events for the uninsured at which local dentists volunteer their time. Check Dentistry From the Heart, America’s Dentists Care Foundation or find your state’s dental association online.
- Dental schools: Many dental schools give free or reduced-cost care. Accredited programs are listed at the American Dental Association website.
- Preventative care: Dental disease can be largely prevented by brushing and flossing correctly and taking other measures.
- Federally qualified health centers: These private clinics receive some government funding. Find clinics in cities and rural areas across the country on the federal Health Resources and Services Administration website.
- Medical travel: Some Americans travel long distances for dental care abroad, particularly in Mexico. They can often find care that’s comparable in quality but considerably cheaper than at home. Medical travelers typically “need a lot of work, like 10 or 20 crowns,” Dr. Jessica Nitardy, who lives in El Paso, Texas, and practices in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, tells The Atlantic.