14 Financial Words You Need to Understand

You hear money jargon everywhere — whether in conversation, online or blaring from the TV and radio.

Yet, how many of us know what terms such as APR, expense ratio and ETF actually mean?

If confusion over money talk makes you feel dumb, we have got a way to get over it. Following is a detailed look at 14 money terms and what they mean. Your financial health depends on understanding this lingo.

1. Compound interest

B Calkins / Shutterstock.com
B Calkins / Shutterstock.com

Compound interest is interest that’s earned and added to an account balance so that the interest, too, then earns interest. Compounding speeds up your earnings because, as your account balance grows, each new interest payment is based on a larger amount.

Calculate compound interest with this calculator from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

2. APR

astephan / Shutterstock.com
astephan / Shutterstock.com

APR stands for “annual percentage rate” and is often confused with “interest rate.” They are related, but not the same.

Think of interest as the cost of borrowing money. Interest and APR both are shown as a percentage of the loan amount. But APR includes interest and other fees and costs, so APR is always higher.

A mortgage APR, for instance, includes closing costs, origination fees and discount points.

The federal Truth in Lending Act requires lenders to tell you the APR when offering a loan. Compare APRs, not interest rates, when you shop for a loan.

3. APY

TZIDO SUN / Shutterstock.com
TZIDO SUN / Shutterstock.com

Here is another commonly misunderstood term: “Annual percentage yield,” or APY, is the yearly amount you earn on savings — or that you pay to borrow. It includes compounded interest.

APR doesn’t include compounded interest, but APY does.

Compare APYs when you are shopping for savings accounts, investment products, credit cards and loans.

4. Mutual fund

Jerry Sliwowski / Shutterstock.com
Jerry Sliwowski / Shutterstock.com

A mutual fund is a basket of different stocks or bonds. A fund offers the chance to make smaller investments in many companies, making it less risky than investing in individual stocks.

5. ETF

Melpomene / Shutterstock.com
Melpomene / Shutterstock.com

ETFs, or “exchange-traded funds,” are traded like stocks on a stock exchange. Like an index mutual fund, an ETF often follows the performance of a particular index: the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, for example.

It is worth noting that some ETFs do not track an index, so know what you are getting into before you invest.

6. Diversification

Florence-Joseph McGinn / Shutterstock.com
Florence-Joseph McGinn / Shutterstock.com

Diversifying is a way to minimize risk by putting your cash eggs in many different baskets. Investors do this by mixing different investments within a portfolio.

If all of your money was invested in real estate during the last housing crash, for example, you probably fared very poorly. You likely would have fared better if your investments were diversified and included stocks, bonds and cash.

7. Asset allocation

gcpics / Shutterstock.com
gcpics / Shutterstock.com

If spreading your investment risk by diversifying is the goal, asset allocation is how to get there. You divide (allocate) your portfolio among different classes of assets. Stocks, bonds, real estate and cash are common ones.

Another example is allocating certain percentages of your stock market investments to a mix of investment types, such as large-cap, small-cap, international and technology mutual funds.

8. Expense ratio

ImageFlow / Shutterstock.com
ImageFlow / Shutterstock.com

An expense ratio is the cost of owning a mutual fund — the operating expenses. If you have mutual funds in your 401(k), look for the expense ratio on the fund’s disclosure statement, listed as a percentage.

Expense ratios look small, but they can add up to lots of money over time.

9. Rebalancing

Horoscope / Shutterstock.com
Horoscope / Shutterstock.com

As investments grow or shrink in a portfolio, the allocations change. At the end of a good year in stocks, for example, you may have more stocks and fewer bonds than your asset allocation plan intends.

So, you can buy or sell shares — or rebalance — to get investments back in line with your plan.

10. Credit score

garagestock / Shutterstock.com
garagestock / Shutterstock.com

A credit score is a three-digit number assigned by credit-reporting agencies for predicting the likelihood you will repay a loan or credit card charge. It represents your “creditworthiness.”

A score is different from a credit report, which is a detailed record of your credit history.

There are many types of credit scores with varying ranges, but the most widely used are FICO scores, which range from 300 to 850. They are based on information about your credit history collected by the three national credit reporting agencies: Equifax, TransUnion and Experian.

Lenders use credit scores to decide whether to lend money or extend credit, and at what interest rate.

11. Net worth

TheaDesign / Shutterstock.com
TheaDesign / Shutterstock.com

Your net worth is all of your assets minus your liabilities. In other words, it is the value of everything you own after subtracting what you owe.

12. Cash flow

Chones / Shutterstock.com
Chones / Shutterstock.com

“Cash flow” is an accounting term. It defines how much cash comes into a business and is used in a certain time period.

In essence, it is used in financial conversation to mean “money available.” You might say, “I can’t go with you to the movies tonight. My cash flow is low.”

13. Opportunity cost

WHYFRAME / Shutterstock.com
WHYFRAME / Shutterstock.com

You often have to give up something to get something you want. The value of what you give up is the opportunity cost.

For example, if you quit a $100,000-a-year job to go back to school, your opportunity cost is the money you would have made if you had kept working.

14. Realtor

SpeedKingz / Shutterstock.com
SpeedKingz / Shutterstock.com

Real estate agents who belong to the National Association of Realtors can call themselves Realtors (with a capital R). The NAR owns the Realtor trademark.

However, the word often is used generically — and incorrectly — as a synonym for “real estate agent.”

Which money terms do you think cause the most confusion? Share with us in comments below or on our Facebook page.

Read Next

Believe It: You Can Save $500,000 in 15 Years
Believe It: You Can Save $500,000 in 15 Years

Even if you’re behind in preparing for retirement, there’s still a way to pull together a solid nest egg if you focus.

Stop Overpaying for These 10 Common Purchases
Stop Overpaying for These 10 Common Purchases

The best price for many of these items is “free.”

15 Smart Ways to Organize Every Room of Your Home
15 Smart Ways to Organize Every Room of Your Home

Are you sick of clutter and digging around to find things? Get your household organized with these brilliant and inexpensive tricks.

View this page without ads

Help us produce more money-saving articles and videos by subscribing to a membership.

Get Started

Comments

Trending Stories